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Atmospheric histories and global emissions of halons H-1211 (CBrClF2), H-1301 (CBrF3), and H-2402 (CBrF2CBrF2)

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Title
Atmospheric histories and global emissions of halons H-1211 (CBrClF2), H-1301 (CBrF3), and H-2402 (CBrF2CBrF2)
Authors
Martin K. Vollmer
Paul J. Fraser
Ronald G. Prinn
Ray F. Weiss
Peter G. Simmonds
James H. Butler
James W. Elkins
Jakob Schwander
Thomas Blunier
Lingxi Zhou
Ray L. Langenfelds
Peter K. Salameh
Matthias Hill
Ray H. J. Wang
Norbert Schmidbauer
Ove Hermansen
Rhee, Tae Siek
Chris R. Lunder
L. Paul Steele
Geoff Dutton
Sunyoung Park
Daniel P. Verdonik
Shanlan Li
David M. Etheridge
Michela Maione
Simon O'Doherty
Stefan Reimann
Bo Yao
Angelina Wenger
Jgor Arduini
Jooil Kim
Dickon Young
Bradley D. Hall
Paul B. Krummel
Stephan Henne
Benjamin R. Miller
Christina M. Harth
Stephen A. Montzka
Matthew Rigby
Cathy M. Trudinger
Jens Muehle
Subject
Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
Issue Date
2016
Citation
Martin K. Vollmer, et al. 2016. "Atmospheric histories and global emissions of halons H-1211 (CBrClF2), H-1301 (CBrF3), and H-2402 (CBrF2CBrF2)". JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ATMOSPHERES, 121: 3663-3686.
Abstract
We report ground-based atmospheric measurements and emission estimates for the halons H-1211 (CBrClF2), H-1301 (CBrF3), and H-2402 (CBrF2CBrF2) from the AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration global networks. We also include results from archived air samples in canisters and from polar firn in both hemispheres, thereby deriving an atmospheric record of nearly nine decades (1930s to present). All three halons were absent from the atmosphere until ∼1970, when their atmospheric burdens started to increase rapidly. In recent years H-1211 and H-2402 mole fractions have been declining, but H-1301 has continued to grow. High-frequency observations show continuing emissions of H-1211 and H-1301 near most AGAGE sites. For H-2402 the only emissions detected were derived from the region surrounding the Sea of Japan/East Sea. Based on our observations, we derive global emissions using two different inversion approaches. Emissions for H-1211 declined from a peak of 11 kt yr?1 (late 1990s) to 3.9 kt yr?1 at the end of our record (mean of 2013?2015), for H-1301 from 5.4 kt yr?1 (late 1980s) to 1.6 kt yr?1, and for H-2402 from 1.8 kt yr?1 (late 1980s) to 0.38 kt yr?1. Yearly summed halon emissions have decreased substantially;nevertheless, since 2000 they have accounted for ∼30% of the emissions of all major anthropogenic ozone depletion substances, when weighted by ozone depletion potentials.
URI
http://repository.kopri.re.kr/handle/201206/5624
DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015JD024488
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