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Modern inhalation anesthetics: Potent greenhouse gasesin the global atmosphere

Cited 18 time in scopus
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Title
Modern inhalation anesthetics: Potent greenhouse gasesin the global atmosphere
Authors
Martin Vollmer
Stefan Reimann
Fabian Schoenenberger
Matthias Hill
Doris Hofstetter
Matt Rigby
Rhee, Tae Siek
Subject
Geology
Keywords
atmospheric chemistry; climate change; global warming; greenhouse gases
Issue Date
2015
Citation
Martin Vollmer, et al. 2015. "Modern inhalation anesthetics: Potent greenhouse gasesin the global atmosphere". GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 42(5): 1606-1611.
Abstract
Modern halogenated inhalation anesthetics undergo little metabolization during clinical application and evaporate almost completely to the atmosphere. Based on their first measurements in a range of environments, from urban areas to the pristine Antarctic environment, we detect a rapid accumulation and ubiquitous presence of isoflurane, desflurane, and sevoflurane in the global atmosphere. Over the past decade, their abundances in the atmosphere have increased to global mean mole fractions in 2014 of 0.097ppt, 0.30ppt, and 0.13ppt (parts per trillion, 10?12, in dry air), respectively. Emissions of these long-lived greenhouse gases inferred from the observations suggest a global combined release to the atmosphere of 3.1 ± 0.6 million t CO2 equivalent in 2014 of which ?80% stems from desflurane. We also report on halothane, a previously widely used anesthetic. Its global mean mole fraction has declined to 9.2ppq (parts per quadrillion, 10?15) by 2014. However, the inferred present usage is still 280 ±120t yr?1.
URI
http://repository.kopri.re.kr/handle/201206/6095
DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2014GL062785
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