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Post-embryonic development of the Early Ordovician (ca. 480 Ma) trilobite Apatokephalus latilimbatus Peng, 1990 and the evolution of metamorphosis

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Title
Post-embryonic development of the Early Ordovician (ca. 480 Ma) trilobite Apatokephalus latilimbatus Peng, 1990 and the evolution of metamorphosis
Other Titles
전기 오르도비스기 삼엽충 Apatokephalus latilimbatus Peng, 1990의 후배발생과 변태의 진화
Authors
Park, Tae-Yoon S.
Kim, Ji-Hoon
Subject
Evolutionary Biology; Developmental Biology; Genetics & Heredity
Keywords
삼엽충; 오르도비스기; 형태진화
Issue Date
2015
Citation
Park, Tae-Yoon S., Kim, Ji-Hoon. 2015. "Post-embryonic development of the Early Ordovician (ca. 480 Ma) trilobite Apatokephalus latilimbatus Peng, 1990 and the evolution of metamorphosis". EVOLUTION & DEVELOPMENT, 17(5): 289-301.
Abstract
In many marine invertebrates metamorphosis entails a shift from a free-swimming larva to a benthic juvenile or adult. However, how the metamorphosis-entailing “indirect development” in arthropods arose from direct-developing ancestor is poorly understood. Trilobites left a rich fossil record, and some trilobite lineages had a metamorphosis undergoing early developmental stage, termed the “asaphoid protaspis”-stage, providing a good opportunity to elucidate the rise of indirect development. Among others, the Ordovician representatives of Remopleuridioidea are known to possess a highly bulbous “asaphoid protaspis,” while the Furongian (Late Cambrian) remopleuridioidean genus Haniwa did not possess it. Here we show the post-embryonic development of the remopleuridioidean trilobite, Apatokephalus latilimbatus, from the Tremadocian (485.4 Ma?477.7 Ma) Dongjeom Formation, Korea. The post-embryonic development of A. latilimbatus contains a free-swimming “commutavi protaspis” (a term replacing “asaphoid protaspis”). Interestingly, the earlier protaspid stage shows more similar morphology and size to the meraspis than the commutavi protaspid stage does. This indicates that the commutavi protaspid stage was intercalated into the ancestral direct development as a specialized stage for a better dispersal, and thus the “commutavi protaspis” of A. latilimbatus represents the initial phase of the evolution of indirect development. The duration of the free-swimming phase became longer in more derived remoplueridioidean trilobites, implying that the intercalated free-swimming strategy became emphasized during subsequent evolution. The morphological gap between the commutavi protaspis and the subsequent earliest meraspis provides a convincing case for the “selective independence” of developmental stages, explaining the various morphologies of commutavi protaspides in many trilobite lineages.
URI
http://repository.kopri.re.kr/handle/201206/6404
DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ede.12138
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