Reconstructing spring sea ice concentration in the Chukchi Sea over recent centuries: insights into the application of the PIP25 index
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- Reconstructing spring sea ice concentration in the Chukchi Sea over recent centuries: insights into the application of the PIP25 index
- Other Titles
- 지난 250년간에 걸친 척치해 봄철 해빙농도 복원: 해빙지수 PIP25 적용
- Kim, Junghyun
Simon T. Belt
- Chukchi Sea; HBIs; IP25; PIP25 index; Sea Ice; dinosterol; epi-brassicasterol
- Issue Date
- Kim, Junghyun, et al. 2019. "Reconstructing spring sea ice concentration in the Chukchi Sea over recent centuries: insights into the application of the PIP25 index". ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS, 14(12): 1-10.
- In this study, we aimed to reconstruct spring (April？June)sea ice changes in the western Arctic Ocean
over recent centuries(ca. the last 250 years) by measuring biomarker distributions in a multicore
(ARA01B-03MUC)retrieved from the Chukchi Shelf region and to evaluate outcomes against known
or modelled estimates of sea ice conditions. Specifically, we analyzed for the Arctic sea ice proxy IP25
and assessed the suitability of a further highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) lipid (HBI III), epibrassicasterol, and dinosterol as complementary biomarkers for use with the so-called phytoplankton
marker-IP25 index (PIP25; PIIIIP25, PBIP25, and PDIP25, respectively). The presence of IP25 throughout
core ARA01B-03MUC confirms the occurrence of seasonal sea ice at the study site over recent
centuries. From a semi-quantitative perspective, all three PIP25 indices gave different trends, with
some dependence on the balance factorc, a term used in the calculation of the PIP25 index.
PIIIIP25-derived spring sea ice concentration (SpSIC) estimates using a c value of 0.63, determined
previously from analysis of Barents Sea surface sediments, were likely most reliable, since SpSIC values
were high throughout the record (SpSIC > 78%), consistent with the modern context for the Chukchi
Sea and the mean SpSIC record of the 41 CMIP5 climate models over recent centuries. PBIP25-based
SpSIC estimates were also high (SpSIC 108%？127%), albeit somewhat over-estimated, when using a c
value of 0.023 obtained from a pan-Arctic distribution of surface sediments. In contrast, PDIP25 values
using a pan-Arctic c value of 0.11, and PIP25 data based on the mean biomarker concentrations from
ARA01B-03MUC, largely underestimated sea ice conditions(SpSIC as low as 13%), and exhibited
poor agreement with instrumental records or model outputs. On the other hand, PBIP25 values using a
cfactor based on mean IP25 and epi-brassicasterol concentrations exhibited a decline towards the core
top, which resembled recent decreasing changes in summer sea ice conditions for the Chukchi Sea;
however, further work is needed to test the broader spatial generality of this observation.
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