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Ocean iron fertilization experiments - past, present, and future looking to a future Korean Iron Fertilization Experiment in the Southern Ocean (KIFES) project

Cited 8 time in wos
Cited 9 time in scopus
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Ocean iron fertilization experiments - past, present, and future looking to a future Korean Iron Fertilization Experiment in the Southern Ocean (KIFES) project
Other Titles
해양 철 시비 실험 : 과거-현재-미래전망을 통한 한국형 철시비 실험 구상
Yoon, Joo-Eun
Kim, Il-Nam
Kim, Kitae
Park, Jisoo
Kim, Seong-Su
Kim, Soyeon
Lee, Jiyoung
Jung, Jinyoung
Lee, Min Kyung
Lee, Jae Il
Kim, Hyun-cheol
Yang, Eun Jin
Park, Ki-Tae
Yoon, Ho Il
Macdonald, Alison M.
Yoo, Kyu-Cheul
Environmental Sciences & Ecology; Geology
Biological Pump; High-Nutrient and Low-Chlorophyll regions; Ocean Iron Fertilization
Issue Date
윤주은, et al. 2018. "Ocean iron fertilization experiments - past, present, and future looking to a future Korean Iron Fertilization Experiment in the Southern Ocean (KIFES) project". BIOGEOSCIENCES, 15(19): 5487-5889.
Since the start of the industrial revolution, human activities have caused a rapid increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, which have, in turn, had an impact on climate leading to global warming and ocean acidification. Various approaches have been proposed to reduce atmospheric CO2. The 'Martin (or Iron) Hypothesis' suggests that ocean iron fertilization (OIF) could be an effective method for stimulating oceanic carbon sequestration through the biological pump in iron-limited, high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions. To test the Martin hypothesis, 13 artificial OIF (aOIF) experiments have been performed since 1990 in HNLC regions. These aOIF field experiments have demonstrated that primary production can be significantly enhanced by the artificial addition of iron. However, except in the Southern Ocean European Iron Fertilization Experiment, no significant change in the effectiveness of aOIF (i.e., the amount of iron-induced carbon export flux below the winter mixed layer depth) has been detected. These results, including possible side effects, have been debated amongst those who support and oppose aOIF experimentation, and many questions such as effectiveness of scientific aOIF, environmental side effects, and international aOIF law frameworks remain. In the context of increasing global and political concerns associated with climate change, it is valuable to examine the validity and usefulness of the aOIF experiments. Furthermore, it is logical to carry out such experiments because they allow one to study how plankton-based ecosystems work by providing insight into mechanisms operating in real time and under in situ conditions. To maximize the effectiveness of aOIF experiments under international aOIF regulations in the future, thus we suggest a design that incorporates several components. (1) Experiments conducted in the center of an eddy structure when grazing pressure is low and silicate levels are high (e.g., in the Southern Ocean south of polar front during early summer). (2) Shipboard observations extending over a minimum of ~40 days, with multiple iron injections (at least 2 (or 3) iron infusions of ~2,000 kg with an interval of ~10?15 days to fertilize a patch of 300 km2 and obtain a ~2 nM concentration). (3) Tracing of the iron fertilized patch using both physical (e.g., a drifting buoy) and biogeochemical (e.g., sulfur hexafluoride, photosynthetic quantum efficiency, and partial pressure of CO2) tracers. (4) Employment of neutrally buoyant sediment traps and application of the water-column derived 234Thorium method at two depths (i.e., just below the in situ mixed layer depth and at the winter mixed layer depth), with autonomous profilers equipped with an underwater video profiler and a transmissometer. (5) Monitoring of side effects on marine/ocean ecosystems, including production of climate-relevant gases (e.g., N2O, dimethyl sulfide, and halogenated volatile organic compounds), decline in oxygen inventory, and development of toxic algae blooms, with optical sensor equipped autonomous moored profilers and/or autonomous benthic vehicles. Lastly, we introduce the scientific aOIF experimental design guidelines for a future Korean Iron Fertilization Experiment in the Southern Ocean.
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