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Climatology of polar ionospheric density profile in comparison with mid-latitude ionosphere from long-term observations of incoherent scatter radars: A review

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Title
Climatology of polar ionospheric density profile in comparison with mid-latitude ionosphere from long-term observations of incoherent scatter radars: A review
Other Titles
북극 전리권 전자밀도 분포의 장기 특성 연구
Authors
Kim, Eunsol
Jee, Geonhwa
Ji, Eun-Young
Kim, Yong Ha
Lee, Changsup
Kwak, Young-Sil
Shim, Ja-Soon
Subject
Geochemistry & Geophysics; Meteorology & Atmospheric Sciences
Keywords
Polar ionosphere; Climatology; Incoherent scatter radar; Review
Issue Date
2020-12
Citation
Kim, Eunsol, et al. 2020. "Climatology of polar ionospheric density profile in comparison with mid-latitude ionosphere from long-term observations of incoherent scatter radars: A review". JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL PHYSICS, 211(1): 105449-105465.
Abstract
Although the horizontal density structures of the polar ionosphere have been extensively studied, there are relatively few studies on the vertical density profiles. In this review, we present the climatology of polar ionospheric density profiles not only in the F-region but also in the E-region and topside ionosphere, in comparison with the mid-latitude ionosphere, using long-term incoherent scatter radar (ISR) observations at Millstone Hill, Tromso, and Svalbard. The observed density profiles during 1995-2015 are analyzed to study on the variations with local time, season, and solar/geomagnetic activity. The diurnal variations of the F-region density are much smaller in the polar region than at mid-latitude, particularly in summer. At Svalbard, there is a characteristic double-peak structure of the polar ionosphere in the diurnal variation in winter and equinox only for high solar activity. The diurnal variation of hmF2 decreases with increasing latitude and eventually disappear at Svalbard for low solar activity. The hmF2 in the polar ionosphere however is greatly enhanced as solar activity increases. The distinctive irregularity in the mid-latitude F1-layer nearly disappears in the polar region, especially at Svalbard. The seasonal variations of the F-region density are less evident in the polar ionosphere especially for low solar activity. The polar E-region density shows characteristic nighttime peaks induced by auroral precipitation but it does not necessarily increase with solar activity. The topside ionospheric density variations are much stronger in the polar region than in the mid-latitude for high solar activity. Finally, it is found that the polar ionospheric density profiles more strongly respond to increasing solar and magnetic activities than the mid-latitude ionosphere.
URI
https://repository.kopri.re.kr/handle/201206/11942
DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2020.105449
Appears in Collections  
2020-2020, Occurrence of aurora and their correlations with polar upper atmospheric and climate variabilities (20-20) / Jee, Geonhwa (PE20100)
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