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Inter-Specific and Intra-Specific Competition of Two Sympatrically Breeding Seabirds, Chinstrap and Gentoo Penguins, at Two Neighboring Colonies

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Title
Inter-Specific and Intra-Specific Competition of Two Sympatrically Breeding Seabirds, Chinstrap and Gentoo Penguins, at Two Neighboring Colonies
Other Titles
턱끈펭귄과 젠투펭귄의 종 간, 종 내 경쟁
Authors
Lee, Won Young
Park, Seongseop
Kim, Kil Won
Kim, Jeong-Hoon
Gal, Jong-Ku
Chung, Hosung
Subject
Agriculture; Veterinary Sciences
Keywords
inter-specific competition; intra-specific competition; niche partitioning; Chinstrap penguin; Gentoo penguin
Issue Date
2021-02
Citation
Lee, Won Young, et al. 2021. "Inter-Specific and Intra-Specific Competition of Two Sympatrically Breeding Seabirds, Chinstrap and Gentoo Penguins, at Two Neighboring Colonies". ANIMALS, 11(2): 482-494.
Abstract
Theory predicts that sympatric predators compete for food under conditions of limited resources. Competition would occur even within the same species, between neighboring populations, because of overlapping foraging habits. Thus, neighboring populations of the same species are hypothesized to face strong competition. To test the hypothesis that intra-specific competition is more intense than inter-specific competition owing to a lack of niche partitioning, we estimated the foraging area and diving depths of two colonial seabird species at two neighboring colonies. Using GPS and time-depth recorders, we tracked foraging space use of sympatric breeding Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins at Ardley Island (AI) and Narebski Point (NP) at King George Island, Antarctica. GPS tracks showed that there was a larger overlap in the foraging areas between the two species than within each species. In dive parameters, Gentoo penguins performed deeper and longer dives than Chinstrap penguins at the same colonies. At the colony level, Gentoo penguins from NP undertook deeper and longer dives than those at AI, whereas Chinstrap penguins did not show such intra-specific differences in dives. Stable isotope analysis of δ13C and δ15N isotopes in blood demonstrated both inter- and intra-specific differences. Both species of penguin at AI exhibited higher δ13C and δ15N values than those at NP, and in both locations, Gentoo penguins had higher δ13C and lower δ15N values than Chinstrap penguins. Isotopic niches showed that there were lower inter-specific overlaps than intra-specific overlaps. This suggests that, despite the low intra-specific spatial overlap, diets of conspecifics from different colonies remained more similar, resulting in the higher isotopic niche overlaps. Collectively, our results support the hypothesis that intra-specific competition is higher than inter-specific competition, leading to spatial segregation of the neighboring populations of the same species.
URI
https://repository.kopri.re.kr/handle/201206/11951
DOI
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11020482
Appears in Collections  
2020-2021, 남극특별보호구역 모니터링 및 남극기지 환경관리에 관한 연구(7) (20-21) / Chung, Hosung (PG20040)
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