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Southern Ocean biogeography of Tintinnid ciliates of the marine plankton

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Southern Ocean biogeography of Tintinnid ciliates of the marine plankton
John R. Dolan
Kim, Sun Young
Yang, Eun Jin
Richard W. Pierce
Antarctica; endemism; microzooplankton; sea ice; zooaplankton
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John R. Dolan, et al. 2012. "Southern Ocean biogeography of Tintinnid ciliates of the marine plankton". JOURNAL OF EUKARYOTIC MICROBIOLOGY, 59(6): 511-519.
Ciliate microzooplankton are important grazers in most pelagic ecosystems and among them, tintinnids, with their largely species-specific loricas, allow relatively easy assessment of questions of diveristy and distributions. Herien, we present the results of a survey of species records of tintinnids from the Southern Ocean (locations below 40˚S) reported in 56 publications yielding 2,047 species records (synonyms included) from 402 locations. The 192 species reported can be parsed into two main groups: 32 endemic Southern Ocean species, known only from 40˚S and further south, and second group of 181 widespread species, forms with extensive geographic ranges extending into the Southern Ocean. Widespread species reported from the Southern Ocean can be further divided into a group of 81 species, each recorded multiple times in the Southern Ocean waters and 70 apparent \"stray\" species which have only been found but once. The endemic and widespread species of the Southern Ocean show both the Antarctic zone delimited by the average location of the Polar Front and contains a relatively large portion of wide-mouthed forms. We give suggestions for future study.
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