Effects of ocean acidification driven by elevated CO2 on larval shell growth and abnormal rates of the venerid clam, Mactra veneriformis
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- Effects of ocean acidification driven by elevated CO2 on larval shell growth and abnormal rates of the venerid clam, Mactra veneriformis
- Other Titles
- 해양산성화에 의한 동죽유생의 성장과 기형율의 영향연구
- Kim, Jee-Hoon
Yang, Eun Jin
Yu, Ok Hwan
- 기형율; 동죽; 유생의 성장; 해양산성화
- Issue Date
- Kim, Jee-Hoon, et al. 2016. "Effects of ocean acidification driven by elevated CO2 on larval shell growth and abnormal rates of the venerid clam, Mactra veneriformis". CHINESE JOURNAL OF OCEANOLOGY AND LIMNOLOGY, 34(6): 1191-1198.
- The venerid clam ( Mactra veneriformis Reeve 1854) is one of the main cultured bivalve species in intertidal and shallow subtidal ecosystems along the west coast of Korea. To understand the eff ects of ocean acidifi cation on the early life stages of Korean clams, we investigated shell growth and abnormality rates and types in the D-shaped, umbonate veliger, and pediveliger stages of the venerid clam M . veneriformis during exposure to elevated seawater p CO 2 . In particular, we examined abnormal types of larval shell morphology categorized as shell deformations, shell distortions, and shell fi ssures. Specimens were incubated in seawater equilibrated with bubbled CO 2 -enriched air at (400±25)×10 -6 (ambient control), (800±25)×10 -6 (high p CO 2 ), or (1 200±28)×10 -6 (extremely high p CO 2 ), the atmospheric CO 2 concentrations predicted for the years 2014, 2084, and 2154 (70-year intervals;two human generations), respectively, in the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario. The mean shell lengths of larvae were signifi cantly decreased in the high and extremely high p CO 2 groups compared with the ambient control groups. Furthermore, under high and extremely high p CO 2 conditions, the cultures exhibited signifi cantly increased abundances of abnormal larvae and increased severity of abnormalities compared with the ambient control. In the umbonate veliger stage of the experimental larvae, the most common abnormalities were shell deformations, distortions, and fi ssures;on the other hand, convex hinges and mantle protuberances were absent. These results suggest that elevated CO 2 exerts an additional burden on the health of M . veneriformis larvae by impairing early development.
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