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Evolution of Polyketide Synthase Genes in Cladonia species

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Evolution of Polyketide Synthase Genes in Cladonia species
Other Titles
Cladonia종 지의류에서의 폴리케타이드 신테이즈 유전자의 진화
Park, Chae Haeng
Lee, Jin sung
Hong, Soon Gyu
Noh, Hyun-Ju
Cladonia; Lichen; PKS; evolution
Issue Date
Park, Chae Haeng, et al. 2012. Evolution of Polyketide Synthase Genes in Cladonia species. SCAR. SCAR. 2012.10.19~.
Lichens are well known for producing a great variety of secondary metabolites including polyketide chemicals. Polyketides are involved in stress responses such as drought, UV, microbial infection, and so on. Biosynthesis of polyketide chemicals are carried out by polyketide syntheses (PKS). Most of the lichens contain multiple copies of PKS genes and it is believed that each copy of the PKS gene is involved in biosyntheses of different polyketide chemicals. As it is regarded that each chemical has unique biological role in stress responses, it is important to study the evolution of the gene to understand its role in environmental adaptation of lichen species. In the current study, we amplified and sequenced KS domains of PKS genes from thirty two samples, which belonged to ten Cladonia species, collected from King George Island, Chile, and Svalbard. Sixty-two KS domain sequences were obtained by direct sequencing and cloning of the PCR amplicons. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that they belonged to non-reducing PKS gene and grouped into twelve clades by the criterion of monophyly and 90% similarity cut off. We examined presence of two of the most frequently found clades (clade 6 and clade 7) and one of the rare clades (clade 4) by specific amplification method. Clade 7 was detected from all of the samples, but clade 4 and clade 6 were detected only from fifteen and thirty samples, respectively. Reconstruction of character change revealed that current distribution of clade 4 PKS genes can be explained by eight acquisition and loss events. Comparison of PKS phylogeny and rDNA phylogeny revealed that clade 7 PKS genes evolved non-orthologously but we could not find concrete evidence to contradict orthologous evolution of clade 6 PKS genes.
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